An estimated 60% to 80% of families known to the child welfare systems have substance abuse problems, with parental substance abuse one of the most difficult presenting problems to treat successfully. Parental substance abuse is associated with higher rates of continued abuse, greater likelihood of out-of-home placement, longer stays in care, and higher rates of termination of parental rights and adoption. In addition, parental substance abuse has high rates of relapse, which presents a challenge due to time limits for family reunification. Successful treatment for parental substance abuse requires a supportive approach with an emphasis on collaboration. This course looks at the challenges of parental substance abuse before discussing how to approach the treatment plan. The importance of documentation and collaboration with substance abuse systems is also discussed.