Substance use is believed to be particularly high among individuals who suffer from anxiety disorders, which is attributed to a belief that drug and alcohol use reduces anxiety and tension. Furthermore, there is a belief that a reciprocal, causal relationship exists between anxiety and substance abuse over time due to the positive relationship between anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence. Because individuals who suffer from anxiety disorders are more likely to self-medicate with alcohol and/or illicit drugs, treating co-occurring anxiety and substance abuse has been a challenge for behavioral health professionals. In addition, co-occurring anxiety and substance abuse also has a high possibility of relapse. An integrated approach to relapse prevention may be the most effective treatment for co-occurring anxiety and substance dependence. Behavioral health professionals need to be trained to effectively provide the treatment approaches to make integrated programs successful. This course will explore what anxiety disorders are before taking an in-depth look at the relationship between substance abuse and anxiety.